Erhan Oztop, May 2002
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1. A general introduction
2. Program level description and thread implementation logic
3. Class Relationships
4. File Formats
5. Code level documentation
6. Download tar.gz ball for
The implementation of MNS follows a schema-based approach. However, the implementation of each schema in general requires multiple number of source files (java classes). Several java classes are required to set up the stage for the simulation environment and schemas and thus are not directly map to the model components. We first summarize the schemas and indicate how and in which java classes they have been implemented. A detailed `programmers view' of the simulation system is presented afterwards.
Figure 1. The MNS (Mirror Neuron System) model.The grand schemas are illustrated as the following. The "Core Mirror Circuit" schema is marked by the center blue box; The "Visual Analysis of Hand State" schema is formed by STS and PG, and the "Reach and Grasp" schema is marked by the yellow background.
The overall system operates in two modes:
(i) Prehension: In this mode, the system will perform grasping actions according to the simulation parameters, such as the position and size of the object. This mode is engaged in two steps. Clicking on VISREACH starts the inverse kinematics solution process. After the solution has been obtained, the grasp can be generated by clicking on REACH button.
(ii) Action recognition: In this mode, the system engages the MNS model embedded in the simulation system. To engage the MNS in recognition, first a grasp action must be solved using VISREACH. Then clicking on RECOGNIZE button will instantiate the MNS model and run the model as the grasp action is taking place (the RECOGNIZE button will initiate the grasp action recently solved).
A simplified version of the system is provided online at http://java.usc.edu/~erhan/sim6.1/ that let users generate grasping actions (i.e. use the Reach and Grasp schema) and query the grasp for action recognition (i.e. use the Core Mirror Circuit schema)
1.1 The Three Grand Schemas
The schemas shown in Figure 1, are encapsulated into the three "grand schemas" as shown in Figure 2(a). The Reach and Grasp schema and the Core Mirror Circuit schema are entirely contained in the simulation system. The video input related functions of the Visual Analysis of Hand State are implemented offline outside the simulation system. The class ImageProcess.java implements the visual processing and feature extraction steps.
Figure 2.(a) For purposes of simulation, the schemas of the MNS model (Figure 1) are grouped under three "grand schemas" for Visual Analysis of Hand State, Reach and Grasp, Core Mirror Circuit. (b) For detailed analysis of the Core Mirror Circuit, we dispense with simulation of the other two grand schemas and use other computational means to provide the three key inputs to this grand schema.
1.1.1 Grand Schema 1: Reach and Grasp
The simulator lets us move from the representation of the shape and position of a (virtual) 3D object and the initial position of the (virtual) arm and hand to a trajectory that successfully results in simulated grasping of the object. In other words the simulator plans a grasp and reach trajectory and executes it in a simulated 3D world. During a typical reach to grasp movement, the hand will follow a `bell-shaped' velocity profile (a single peaked velocity curve). The kinematics of the aperture between fingers used for grasping also exhibits typical characteristics. The aperture will first reach a maximum value that is larger than the aperture required for grasping the object and then as the hand approaches to the target the hand encloses to match the actual required aperture for the object. The simulator captures the qualitative aspects of the typical reach and grasp actions, namely that the velocity profiles have single peaks and that the hand aperture has a maximum value which is larger than the object size. A grasp is planned by first setting the operational space constraints (e.g., points of contact of fingers on the object) and then finding the arm-hand configuration to fulfill the constraints. The latter is the inverse kinematics problem. The simulator solves the inverse kinematics problem by simulated gradient descent with noise added to the gradient. Once the hand-arm configuration is determined for a grasp action, then the trajectory is generated by warping time using a cubic spline. The parameters of the spline are fixed and determined empirically to satisfy aperture and velocity profile requirements. Within the simulator, it is possible to adjust the target identity; position and size manually using a GUI or automatically by the simulator as, for example, in training set generation.The Grand Schema 1 is composed of the following schemas:
Object Features schema:The output of this schema providesa coarse coding of geometrical features of the observed object. In the simulation the object features are not represented explicitly, instead the `right' object feature is directly encoded in the Object-Affordance Extraction schema.
Object Affordance Extraction schema :This schema transforms its input, the coarse coding of geometrical features of the observed object provided by the Object features schema, into a coarse coding for each affordance of the observed object. The transformation is not implemented instead this schema is taken as 10-unit extension of the hand-state input and the representation is formed algorithmically (i.e. no feature extraction). The current implementation encodes only the size of the object. Note that there are different implementations where the explicit object affordance is disabled. The class HandBP.java performs the 10-unit coding for recognition.
Object Location schema:The output of this schema provides, in some body-centered coordinate frame, the location of the center of the opposition axis for the chosen affordance of the observed object. This information is contained in Graspable.java.
Motor Program (Grasp) schema: The input to this schema is the object features required for grasping. Conceptually this information is relayed via AIP. In the implementation the class Graspable.java contains the information about how to grasp an object. This output drives the Action-recognition (Mirror neurons) schema as well as the hand control functions of the Motor execution schema
Motor Program (Reach) schema :The input is the position coded by the Object location schema, while the output is the motor command required to transport the arm to bring the hand to the indicated location. This drives the arm control functions of the Motor execution schema.
The Motor Execution schema determines the course of movements via activity in primary motor cortex M1 and "lower" regions. In the implementation the reach and grasp configuration is used to generate and execute a grasping action. This function is implemented in Object3d.java via the thread execution system.
1.1.2 Grand Schema 2:Visual Analysis of Hand State
Visual Analysis of Hand State Schema is a non-neurophysiological implementation of a visual analysis system to validate the extraction of hand parameters from a view of a hand, by recovering the configuration of a model of the hand being seen. The hand model is a three dimensional 14 degrees of freedom (DOF) kinematic model, with a 3-DOF joint for the wrist, two 1-DOF joints for each of the four fingers, and finally a 1-DOF joint for the metacarpophalangeal joint, and a 2-DOF joint for the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. Note the distinction between "hand configuration" which gives the joint angles of the hand considered in isolation, and the "hand state" which comprises 7 parameters relevant to assessing the motion and preshaping of the hand relative to an object. Thus the hand configuration provides some, but not all, of the data needed to compute the hand state. To lighten the load of building a visual system to recognize hand features, we mark the wrist and the articulation points of the hand with colors. We then use this color-coding to help recognize key portions of the hand and use this result to initiate a process of model matching. Thus, the first step of the vision problem is color segmentation, after which the three-dimensional hand shape is recovered.
Color Segmentation and Feature Extraction
Color segmentation is implemented using, split-and-merge method that works by recursively splitting the image into smaller pieces until some homogeneity criterion is satisfied as a basis for reaggregation into regions. In our case, the criterion is having similar color throughout a region. However, RGB (Red-Green-Blue) and HSV (Hue-Saturation-Value) were not satisfactory for our purposes due to shading and the inherent low quality of the video input. Therefore, we designed an adaptive system that can learn the best color space (color-expert). The system is a (one hidden-layer) feed-forward network with sigmoidal activation function. The network is given around 100 training samples manually using the GUI implemented in ImageProcess.java each of which is a vector of ((R, G, B), perceived color code) values. The training is done only at the beginning of a session to learn the colors used on the particular hand. Then the network is fixed as the hand is viewed in a variety of poses. The output of the algorithm is then converted into a feature vector with a corresponding confidence vector giving a confidence level for each component in the feature vector. Each finger is marked with two patches of the same color (see Figure 3). Sometimes it may not be possible to determine which patch corresponds to the fingertip and which to the knuckle. In those cases the confidence value is set to 0.5. If a color is not found (e.g., the patch may be obscured), a zero value is given for the confidence. If a unique color is found without any ambiguity then the confidence value is set to 1. The segmented centers of regions (color markers) are taken as the approximate articulation point positions. Toconvert the absolute color centers into a feature vector we simply subtract the wrist position from all the centers found and put the resulting relative (x,y) coordinate into the feature vector (but the wrist is excluded from the feature vector as the positions are specified with respect to the wrist position). The image processing routines are implemented in ImageProcess.java. The training of the color expert is also performed within this class. The learning engine resides in BP.java. The output of ImageProcess is feature file to be used with the 3D model matching routines.
3D Hand Model Matching
Our model matching algorithm uses the feature vector generated by the segmentation system to attain a hand configuration and pose that would result in a feature vector as close as possible to the input feature vector (Figure 3).
where subscripting denotes components and Cf, Cg denotes the confidence vectors associated with F and G. The model matching code is implemented by Match.java, Feature.java.
When we simulate the Core Mirror Circuit (Grand Schema 3) we will in general not use this implementation of Visual Analysis of Hand State but instead, to simplify computation, we will use synthetic output generated by the reach/grasp simulator to emulate the values that could be extracted with this visual system. Specifically, we use the hand/grasp simulator to produce both (i) the visual appearance of such a movement for our inspection (Figure 4 Left), and (ii) the hand state trajectory associated with the movement (Figure 4 Right). Especially, for training we need to generate and process too many grasp actions, which makes it impractical to use the visual processing system without special hardware as the computational time requirement is too high.The Grand Schema 2 is composed of the schemas:
The Hand Shape Recognition schema takes as input a view of a hand, and its output is a specification of the hand shape, which thus forms some of the components of the hand state. In the current implementation these are a(t), o 3 (t) and o 4 (t). Note also that we implicitly assume that the schema includes a validity check to verify that the scene does contain a hand . This function is implemented offline. The color segmentation and color expert training are performed with ImageProcess.java. The 3D hand matching is contained in the simulation system but requires a hand-only kinematics chain model of the hand. Since the many of our simulations use the emulated hand state bypassing the visual analysis of a real video sequence. We will not describe the methods making up 3d hand matching in detail.
The Hand Motion Detection schema takes as input a sequence of views of a hand and returns as output the wrist velocity, supplying the v(t) component of the hand state. This supplied via the Reach and Grasp simulator substituting the actual video processing.
The Hand-Object spatial relation analysis schemareceives object-related signals from the Object features schema, as well as input from the Object Location, Hand shape recognition and Hand motion detection schemas. Its output is a set of vectors relating the current hand preshape to a selected affordance of the object. The schema computes such parameters as the distance of the object to the hand, and the disparity between the opposition axes of the object and the hand. Thus the hand state components o 1(t), o 2 (t), and d(t) are supplied by this schema. In the implementation the hand-object relation is computed algorithmically and the resultant vector (hand state) is encoded in the output, which is relayed to the Object affordance-hand state association schema. In turn Object affordance-hand state association schema drives the F5 mirror neurons whose output is a signal expressing confidence that the observed trajectory will extrapolate to match the observed target object using the grasp encoded by that mirror neuron.
To recap, in the implementation Reach and Grasp schema is used to (1) plan and execute reach and grasp (render a graphical view of the hand and the object during grasping) (2) Emulate the Visual Analysis of Hand State schema and produce the Hand State that is used by the Core Mirror Circuit.
1.1.3 Grand Schema 3: Core Mirror Circuit
As diagrammed in Figure 2(b), the analysis of the Core Mirror Circuit does not require simulation of Visual Analysis of Hand State and of Reach and Grasp so long as we ensure that it receives the appropriate inputs. Thus, we supply the object affordance and grasp command directly to the network at each trial. (Actually, we conduct experiments to compare performance with and without an explicit input which codes object affordance.). Rather than provide visual input to the Visual Analysis of Hand State schema and have it compute the hand state input to the Core Mirror Circuit, we use the reach and grasp simulator to simulate the performance of the observed primate - and from this simulation we extract both a graphical display of the arm and hand movement that would be seen by the observing monkey, as well as the hand state trajectory that would be generated in his brain. We thus use the time-varying hand state trajectory generated in this way to provide the input to the model of the Core Mirror Circuit of the observing monkey without having to simultaneously model his Visual Analysis of Hand State. Thus, we have implemented the Core Mirror Circuit in terms of neural networks using as input the synthetic data on hand state that we gather from our reach and grasp simulator.
Neural Network Implementation
For supervised learning that takes place in the Core Mirror Circuit, we used a feed-forward neural network with one hidden layer. We can here identify the parts of the neural network as Figure 1 schemas in a one-to-one fashion. The hidden layer of the model neural network corresponds to the Object affordance-hand state association schema, while the output layer of the network corresponds to the Action recognition schema (i.e., we identify the output neurons with the F5 mirror neurons). In the following formulation, MR (mirror response) represents the output of the Action recognition schema; MP (motor program) denotes the target of the network (copy of the output of Motor Program (Grasp) schema ). X denotes the input vector applied to the network, which is the transformed Hand State tajectory (and the object affordance). The transformation applied is described in the next subsection. The learning algorithm used is implemented in the class HandBP.java.
Temporal to Spatial Transformation
The input at any time represented the entire input from
the start of the action until the present time t. To form the input vector,
each of the seven components of the hand state trajectory to time t is
fitted by a cubic spline, and the splines are then sampled at 30 uniformly
spaced intervals (see Spline.java). The hand
state input is then a vector with 210 components (220 for the explicit
object affordance coding simulations): 30 samples from the time-scaled
spline fitted to the 7 components of the hand-state time series. Note then
that no matter what fraction t is of the total time T of the entire trajectory,
the input to the network at time t comprises 30 samples of the hand-state
uniformly distributed over the interval [0, t]. Thus the sampling is less
densely distributed across the trajectory-to-date as t increases from 0
to T. The class Spline.java provides routines
to collect vector of parameters and then return a spline representation
out of the collected data. The scaling operation is also implemented in
The Neural Network Training
The training set was constructed by making the simulator perform various grasps in the following way.
(i) The objects used were a cube of changing size (scaled randomly by 0.5 -1.5), a disk (approximated as a thin prism), a ball (approximated as a dodecahedron) again scaled randomly by a number between 0.75 and 1.5. In this particular trial, we did not change the disk size. In the training set formation, a certain object always received a certain grasp (unlike the testing case).
(ii) The target locations were chosen form the surface patches of a sphere centered on the shoulder joint. The patch is defined by bounding meridian and parallel lines. The extent of the meridian and parallel lines was from -45° to 45°. The step chosen was 15°. Thus the simulator made 7x7 = 49 grasps per object. The unsuccessful grasp attempts were discarded from the training set. For each successful grasp, two negative examples were added to the training set in the following way. The inputs (group of 30) for each parameter are randomly shuffled. In this way, the network was forced to learn the order of activity within a group rather than learning the averages of the inputs (note that the shuffling does not change mean and variance). The second negative pattern was used to stress that the distance to target was important. The target location was perturbed and the grasp was repeated (to the original target position). Another modification to the training was to introduce a random input pattern (totally random; no shuffling) on the fly during training and ask the network to produce zero output for those patterns. The learning engine is implemented in HandBP.java where as the training data generation explained above is performed by the generateData method of HV.java. The class Learn.java is used in collecting hand state data for both training data generation and recognition.The Grand Schema 3 is composed of the schemas:
The Action Recognition schema corresponds to the mirror neurons of area F5 and receives two inputs in our model. One is the motor program selected by the Motor program schema; the other comes from the Object affordance-hand state association schema. This schema works in two modes: learning and recognition. When a self-executed grasp is taking place the schema is in learning mode and the association between the observed hand-state (Object affordance-hand state association schema) and the motor program (Motor program schema) is learned. While in recognition mode, the motor program input is not active and the schema acts as a recognition circuit.
The Object affordance-hand state association schema combines all the hand related information as well as the object information available. Thus the inputs to the schema are from Hand shape recognition (components a(t), o3(t), o4 (t)), Hand motion detection (component v(t)), Hand-Object spatial relation analysis (o 1 (t), o2 (t), d(t)) and from Object affordance extraction schemas. As will be explained below, the schema needs a learning signal (mirror feedback). This signal is relayed by the Action recognition schema and, is basically, a copy of the motor program passed to the Action recognition schema itself. The output of this schema is a distributed representation of the object and hand state match which is shaped by the learning process. The idea is to match the object and the hand state as the action progresses during a specific observed reach and grasp. In the current implementation, time is unfolded into a spatial representation of "the trajectory until now" at the input of the Object affordance-hand state association schema, and the Action recognition schema decodes the distributed representation to form the mirror response.
In short, the schema has two operating modes. First is the learning mode where the schema tries to adjust its efferent and afferent weights to ensure the right activity in the Action recognition schema. The second mode is the forward mode where it maps the hand state and the object affordance into a distributed representation to be used by the Action recognition schema.
2. Program level description and thread implementation logic
The simulator environment is designed such as new behavior or tasks required it can be added to the system. For example a click on the VISREACH button initiates a grasp planning task; a click on REACH button initiates an other task namely executing the recently planned task. Some tasks can run in parallel. A click on YROTATE button will put the camera into an orbit around the Y-axis. While the camera is rotating other tasks can be initiated (e.g. VISREACH). In what follows I will explain how to add a new task by going through the VISREACH mechanism in detail.
The GUI of the simulation environment is implemented in HV. Every event in the simulator starts from a user action. The events are initially handled by HV.java.
Thus the entry points of tasks reside in HV.java
To run the system type:
java HV [.seg file [sidec radius [feat file?]]]
file defines the arm object to be loaded as a Segment class (see Segment.java).
Each object can have many segments possible but currently only single segment
is used. The parameters sidec and radius define the cylinder drawn around
the skeleton. The feat file is the feature file that is extracted by ImageProcess.java
and used for 3D model matching.
The user starts a grasp planning by hitting VISREACH, which triggers the system to start solving the inverse kinematics problem involved. When HV is notified that the user hit VISREACH, the method toggleReach() (in HV.java) is called. This method may initiate various type of grasps as indicated by its parameter. Or it can initiate a `natural' grasp corresponding to the current object The default affordances and grasping types for objects are defined in Graspable.java. The natural() method of Graspable will be called if a natural grasp is requested. For any object any grasp can be enforced by the user via the GRASPTYPE button.
toggleReach() is called if there was an active reach task (checked by Hand.reachActive())
the reach/grasp is terminated by Hand.kill_ifActive(). Let's assume that
we made a natural reach/grasp plan and there was no active task. Natural
grasp choice directs the program flow to precision, power etc methods in
Graspable. Currently each Graspable affords one grasp type (unless manually
changed by the user). Let's assume the grasp to be executed is precision.
Then the method precision() in Graspable.java
will be called. In general, the grasp planning is done by determining some
targets on the object for the hand and trying to achieve a specified contact.
The tIndex array is used to hold segment pointers to indicate the parts
of the hand that are used in targeting. The variable target holds the actual
values (numbers) to be achieved. After the kinematics goals are set the
control returns to HV.togglereach() and Hand.doReach(object, s) is called.
is a superclas s of Object3d.java
and infact doReach is in Object3d.java
(bad programming). The method doReach(s) is the control center for actions.
When the control reaches doReach(), the program execution is multiplexed
according to the parameter passed (s).
2.The 2D drawing is handled by HVcanvas.java. The requests to refresh the display is made to this class. Double buffering for a fine animation is also handled in this class. HV.java is one of the multi function classes and sets up the GUI and dispatches the user events.
3.Eye.java contains methods for projecting the 3D environment to 2D view. The 3D environment (objects) are kept and managed by the class Mars.java. Some of the 3D rendering and object interaction operations are performed within Object3d.java such as 3D solid rendering, collision detection, inside/outside detection.
Figure 4. Some of the simulation system components and their major function.
4. Control classes are the programming constructs enforcing a certain style of programming to achieve correct sequence of processing. For example, the way the thread system (described in the previous section) set up requires certain book keeping methods. Unfortunately, in terms of object orientation, the code here is not well written. Virtually HV.java and Object3d.java form the skeleton of the control system. HV initiates a task, which eventually leads to a call to Object3d.java. Object3d sets up some flags and parameters according to the request from HV. It eventually creates a thread that calls back the appropriate methods in Object3d and in other classes.
Figure 6. The major components of the simulation system that makes up the Reach and Grasp and the Core Mirror Circuit schemas.
MNS routines are distributed over Segment.java,
keeps the kinematics of the arm and have routines to manipulate the arm/hand.
Thus it is part of the Reach and Grasp schema. It performs the forward
kinematics computation required by the 3D rendering routines. The forward
kinematics problem is the calculation of the position and orientation of
the links making up the arm/hand in 3D space given the geometry of the
hand/arm and the joint angles. The geometry of the arm/hand is specified
in .seg file which can read from Segment.java.
defines some hand related variables and contains methods specific to arm/hand
object such as computing the aperture.
and BP.java correspond to the MNS model's hand
state generation and the functioning of the core mirror circuit. Learn.java
can collect data and represent them as splines. During training set generation
collects data and writes them to the disk in a way that BP.java
can read it offline and used it in training. During recognition Learn.java
collects hand state data forms the input (spline fitting and normalization)
to BP.java and queries BP with the input.
The hand/arm and the objects for grasping are defined by segment files. The file must be ASCII text and must follow the convention described below. I will use the actual arm/hand definition file to describe the format:
#The sharp (#)character indicates a comment. Empty lines are ignored.
The keywords are shown in red color.
# Eye is specifies the default Fz, F, and scale values for projection. Usually fixed.
# The coordinate system is left-handed. +z axis goes into the screen, +y axis is the vertical
# axis going upwards on the screen. +x axis is the horizontal axis towards the right of the
# Below setting gives a lens at 0,0,-9500 looking at 0,0,0 with mag=900
0 9500 900
The links (or segments or limbs) are defined hierarchically. The parents
of a link
# can be referenced with either ID or label
# Note that the base of the fingers are fixed joints! Thus base+1 base+2
# are flexible joints.wrist is also flexible.
# Note that JointPos LimbPos JointAxis are index to Points (starting from 1)
# ID must be greater than 0. A zero parent means null parent.
# * jointAxis is actually is the cross product of the limb with the value given
# under JointAxis.
#AxisType=0 (or jointaxis=(0,0,0) ) means fixed joint.
#AxisType=-1 means that the JointAxis given is not actually the joint axis;
#to get the real joint axis a cross product of the axis with
#(jointpos-limbpos) is required (this is done by the file loader)..
#AxisType=1 means the JointAxis field IS actually the joint axis.
# Limbs starts the definition of the links of the kinematics chain
The first column is a user-defined label. In this case, it defines the
first link the
# (upper arm) and the first joint. Next three numbers (JointPos) is the position of the joint
# as (x,y,z). Next three (LimbPos) define the position of the end of the link. The next three
# (JointAxis) define the rotation axis of the limb (see above for special values). The next
# number (Jtype) defines thee joint type (see above for special values). The last value
# (Parent) indicates which link this link is connected to.
# Note that in the below BASE just sets the shoulder position but does not define a joint.
# The length of the link is 0 (JointPos and LimbPos are the same)
#LABEL JointPos LimbPos JointAxis JType Parent
BASE 0 0 -750 0 0 -750 0 0 0 0 -1
# Within the optional section of Points-EndPoints some 3D points can
be defined for later
# referencing in the Planes section. The idea is to enable of covering the limb with user
# defined planes for visualization reasons.
300 700 -350
400 800 -350
400 800 50
300 700 50
-1200 -1700 -1200
-1200 -1700 1200
1200 -1700 1200
1200 -1700 -1200
# Now we define the actual joints. J1, J2, J3 implements the 3DOF of
the shoulder. Note the<>
# labels in the last column where the hierarchy is set.
J1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 BASE
J2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 -1 1 J1
J3 0 0 1 0 -800 0 -1 0 1 J2
J4 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 J3
WRISTz 1 0 0 0 0 700 0 0 1 1 J4
# Other links are specified similarly. Note that the link length information
# by the joint position and limb position values.
WRISTy 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 00 01 00
WRISTx 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 01 00 00 01 WRISTy
PINKY 0.00 0.00 0.00 83.00 0 144.00 00 -01 00 -1 WRISTx
PINKY1 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.00 0 45.00 00 -01 00 -1 PINKY
PINKY2 0.00 0.00 0.00 39.00 0 50.00 00 -01 00 -1 PINKY1
RING 0.00 0.00 0.00 45.00 0 152.00 00 -01 00 -1 WRISTx
RING1 0.00 0.00 0.00 22.00 0 91.00 00 -01 00 -1 RING
RING2 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.00 0 79.00 00 -01 00 -1 RING1
MIDDLE 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 159.00 00 -01 00 -1 WRISTx
MIDDLE1 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 0 108.00 00 -01 00 -1 MIDDLE
MIDDLE2 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.00 0 89.00 00 -01 00 -1 MIDDLE1
INDEX -12.00 0.00 0.00 -55.00 0 156.00 00 -01 00 -1 WRISTx
0 5 0
INDEX1 0.00 0.00 0.00 -16.00 0 87.00 00 -01 00 -1 INDEX
0 5 0
INDEX2 0.00 0.00 0.00 -9.00 0 76.00 00 -01 00 -1 INDEX1
THUMB -35.00 0.0 -5.00
-35.00 0 10.00 00 0 1 01 WRISTx
THUMBin 0.00 0.00 0.00 -98.00 0 0.00 00 01 00 01 THUMB
THUMB2 0.00 0.00 0.00 -90.00 0 0.00 00 1 0 01 THUMBin
0 0 0
THUMB3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -50.00 0 0.00 00 1 0 01 THUMB2
# Planes section draws planes by referencing the Points defined before.
# For example the first line after the Planes keyword below draws a triangle between the
# thumb and index for a more pleasent look.
INDEX 0 INDEX1 0 THUMB2 0 INDEX 0
BP weight (trained network specification) file format:
The BP saves the trained network parameters in a weight file. The weight file then can be used for recognition within the simulation system. The format of the weight file is as follows.
# This file
specfies the network size and the weight values
# Network sizes exclude the clamped 1's for input and hidden layer
# So the weight matrices has one more column for the clamped unit.
# Note: To
train the network you need to load a pattern file
# Note: One can not specify learning parameters from this file
# Note: If it is desired to continue a learning session that has been partially learned and
# saved as a weight file,the user should use Make Network from Weight followed by Load Pattern
# and then continue training.
# First matrix
is the input(x)->hidden(y) weights(w)
# Second matrix is the hidden(y)->output(z) weights(W)
# The network computes sgn(W.sgn(w.x)) where sgn(t)=1/(1+exp(-t))
number of output units
number of hidden units
number of input units
The rest of the file must contain two matrices: First one is the input
to hidden unit weights
# and must be of size (hiddendim+1)x(inputdim+1). The second matrix specifies hiddendim to output
# weights and must be of size (hiddendim+1)x(outputdim. The rest of the file also may contain
# comments (# lines) or spaces.
# NOTE: this is a sample weight data and is not related to the hand state trajectory.
input -> hidden weights w
10.422786741951482 16.73426199413754 -7.466200723034477 -12.787040187558674
16.499510172456855 4.90012092736305 -28.022539006345056 -0.9427094535978825
-17.6886996507937 -5.020396213129124 18.63473513981201 -7.419837675439184
16.897785745600636 -5.413514084920573 15.380053975037333 -13.907545708819363
27.56417841807994 -12.780044737056045 1.615048155203243 -13.168763882615979
-33.44896959556014 3.1760776694926887 9.262262475538996 -1.2742324888058414
-21.407252177972133 22.582425819119617 -4.87055954571949 -3.24997130962201
5.135055034713992 29.89695887312792 -2.4656355197730124 -6.379078899867055
29.580412926937058 -26.6922637332009 9.680411652169438 -5.554100916880081
4.1819164726456295 -1.8921208436907047 -9.430850780797586 -2.2017384680840513
30.942311345861352 -26.665355203358835 -4.662884666887864 -0.7986902810193839
6.465607424246219 23.93106115639326 -25.846052510815646 -3.5599676455190195
-11.225871018176264 -17.717022914584547 26.964441701700064 -4.129314058546056
6.976397172393547 -15.700935596088472 -0.2986705879703097 -0.6253219045074162
6.293018483956897 -0.13658205945008037 19.87570954904005 -9.101282738417348
0.013026976553848647 0.02055113570277364 0.003055647740781431 -0.007700128556778718
-> output weights W:
-14.194373045068529 -3.531086734189389 -6.70011522925556 -2.1080285956872906 -7.072482901221429 -11.317620850123792 13.646290412167643 -0.35448280286673767 -15.30901422135202 -2.412323898046175 -4.719923931253326 -19.190783152544284 -5.1458711660356 -3.0707297172778114 6.031155234692427 -9.708743931800873
-12.95428038244905 -2.512048414824848 -4.108109331897354 -10.131199015152907 12.869434870837223 -2.557542014875756 -4.9747969991352665 8.656391901314256 3.602040419669517 -5.228865715695639 -6.047442278840204 7.354443855483113 -5.098154500418354 0.810851488745853 -10.84546263647792 -15.049137183991494
-1.3208256591716374 -2.8748717603584057 -3.6290118185950275 -6.94193876011284 -6.16976662364653 -12.708403205187519 -7.3627651345216885 -15.294504309232858 11.93232757072578 -1.3851944125883646 -17.53039217390351 -2.4495412287481106 4.309977728613909 -5.411186368310457 2.0137278126699525 -2.2959194719567493
-2.018364375291581 -7.671290219312747 -4.986309494153618 -4.67928127438167 -2.07043036773269 0.9922638329891751 11.294378718570114 -3.5535147898191815 -7.027124136383734 -1.4352053566750311 -4.755562620102474 -13.047279080208025 -9.449719682579724 -4.056473356555448 -11.153474554232359 -1.4980636589887397
-2.164923119711553 -13.618487180407401 -3.619415633364873 -4.241557476565329 0.03612462718988775 -3.470311133518886 -3.9288286929908116 -12.220065240378437 3.5439207283817673 -2.889494610019677 6.814436125254603 -10.00700473378317 -12.965733102711402 8.558465674310087 -1.0867560866291053 -9.082973687447884
-3.2229012661859526 -3.1238896844408623 10.149725270407197 -12.537562128516486 -3.921951764568255 -2.6442871778320765 -12.076693344525038 -13.343435559812383 -8.723901021543902 -2.893166398333897 -7.352508110442664 -4.120317950656725 4.691342404427895 -5.3562148926079605 3.812237132555929 -7.384676482517599
10.656960742098745 -0.030958259070857554 -2.8275106720610657 0.13977793306768035 -9.47648839039812 -2.191330866593963 -13.128322774913409 -1.7899503816001672 -11.694390627542345 -2.1297029158879144 11.314607962793469 -2.4885181754719183 -3.399231331208309 -5.917827068358364 -0.9473786831822668 -11.03501447719245
-1.633367930356288 0.1703034598094734 -0.8775529129215793 -5.347910958554222 -5.105415617019582 -4.7114174488156735 -4.535867458702889 -9.290743939562235 -17.13750406562645 -1.1262823670832158 11.088705894099176 -6.6057143939286735 -6.391820318627141 -4.075227376593448 -5.205309263962132 -1.672760935870957